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The following Bibliography on Women's Offenders was by using the ETOH Database on 3/31/2001 , at 11:40:43 AM using " FIND ("AB" ct women offenders) " as the search criteria. This report sorts by Year first (in reverse order) and then by the primary author. 15 records were found.

1. Greenfeld, L.A.; Snell, T.L. Women offenders. Bureau of Justice Statistics: Special Report, December 1999. (153167)

This statistical report examines the racial/ ethnic composition of the current female population in prison, the types of crimes in which they were involved, victim characteristics, health issues, recidivism, and related topics. About half of women offenders confined in State prisons had been using alcohol, drugs, or both at the time of the offense for which they had been incarcerated. Among these women offenders, drug use at the time of the offense was reported more often than alcohol use, a different pattern from that found among male offenders in State prisons. On every measure of drug use, women offenders in State prisons reported higher usage (40 percent women compared to 32 percent men) at the time the crime was committed. Every measure of alcohol use was higher for male inmates than for female inmates. An estimated 25 percent of women in local jails, 29 percent of women in State prisons, and 15 percent of women in Federal prisons had been consuming alcohol at the time of the offense. In State prisons, half of women reported drinking alcohol in the year before the current offense compared to two-thirds of male offenders. Daily drinkers accounted for about 25 percent of female inmates and 29 percent of male inmates. At the time of the offense, 29 percent of women offenders and 38 percent of male inmates had been under the influence of alcohol. Substance abusing women inmates were more likely than drug/alcohol-involved male inmates to report having received treatment.

2. Kassebaum, P.A. Substance abuse treatment for women offenders: Guide to promising practices. Technical Assistance Publication (TAP) Series 23. Rockville, MD: Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, 1999. 174 p. (149907)

This report is intended for professionals from a wide range of disciplines who work with women involved in some aspect of the criminal justice system. The aim is to provide guidance in designing programs to help women offenders with addictions. Major sections of the report cover setting the stage for treatment (research findings on women offenders and addiction, specific treatment approaches for women offenders, systems planning for a continuum of care); designing treatment programs (clinical issues in treating women offenders, program design); stages of treatment planning (stages in the treatment/accountability continuum of care, critical issues in implementing programs); and summaries of programs (the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment women's programs for offenders). 192 Ref.

3. Lockwood, D.; McCorkel, J.; Inciardi, J.A. Developing comprehensive prison-based therapeutic community treatment for women. Drugs and Society, 13(1/2):193-212, 1998. (144153)

Experience and research have affirmed that treatment works for drug-involved offenders. Nonetheless, adapting these treatment models for drug-involved women offenders remains a challenge. One treatment modality, the therapeutic community (TC), has proven effective for women. This article discusses the adaptations necessary to the TC model to make it appropriate and effective for drug- involved women. Several themes are discussed including the staffing structure, staff-client interactions, the safety of the treatment environment, characteristics of the residential community, programming, and the treatment program's relationship with various social service agencies. In addition, the program elements specific to effective TCs for women in the criminal justice setting are also discussed. The experiences of developing, implementing and operating a specific TC for drug-involved female offenders provide examples of establishing an effective TC for women. 34 Ref.
Copyright 1998 - The Haworth Press, Inc.

4. Pearl, N. Use of community-based social services by women offenders. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 26(3/4):91-110, 1998. (141374)

The use of community based punishment, specifically parole, provides an opportunity for women offenders to access rehabilitative services that are available as social services to the general community. The current study provides information on a missing link in the rehabilitation debate. It broadens the understanding of the mechanisms of rehabilitation by examining women prior to their participation in the community based social services in order to answer questions about women who do and do not use them. The study utilizes data gathered through a survey research design and uses discriminant analysis to examine a group of 67 women parolees in the greater Boston area. The study results suggest that factors of parole, characteristics of the parolee and elements of the instant offense combine to discriminate between women who use services and women who do not. Correctional policy recommendations are made based on the established link between the use of social services and a reduction in continued criminality. 16 Ref.
Copyright 1998 - The Haworth Press, Inc.

5. Welle, D.; Falkin, G.P.; Jainchill, N. Current approaches to drug treatment for women offenders: Project WORTH. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 15(2):151-163, 1998. (142120)

This study examines salient issues in the provision of drug treatment services and various approaches for addressing women offenders' drug use, criminal activity, and victimization experiences. There are currently three main approaches to drug treatment for women offenders: approaches that primarily treat drug use as a way to prevent relapse and recidivism; approaches that address drug use and criminality as separate issues; and approaches addressing a range of traumas that are viewed as having triggered, complicated, and protracted both drug use and criminality. Discussed here are some of the implications these approaches have for the provision and delivery of treatment services, the assignment of sanctions within corrections-based programs and parole and probation systems, and the anticipated needs of women offenders in recovery. Open-ended life history interviews were conducted with 60 women who had recently entered treatment. Results indicated that there is not agreement across programs, or among clients, about whether victimization should be a central or secondary treatment topic. However, what remains clear is that addressing women's victimization experiences in treatment can help illuminate important aspects both of women's drug use and their criminal activity, and can provide a model for women offenders in recovering from complex cycles of violence, drug use, and criminal activity. Programs are establishing treatment settings that provide therapeutic alternatives to women offenders' previous experiences of abuse and punishment. New programs are being developed with community-based alternatives to incarceration and incest and domestic violence survivor support groups that address the specific needs of incarcerated women. 21 Ref.

6. Clement, M. New treatment for drug-abusing women offenders in Virginia. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 25(1/2):61-81, 1997. (138973)

This study compares a new approach to treatment, Results/Kinesiology (RK), with traditional social work on a group of drug-abusing women offenders in Virginia. RK addresses body-mind control, brain hemispheric integration, energy balancing and stress elimination through bio-feedback. A nonequivalent control group design and a time-series quasi-experimental design were used for 40 alcoholic and drug-addicted women. Questionnaires were used to measure self-esteem, life satisfaction, use of alcohol, passive dependency, dysfunctional attitude and spousal abuse. Monthly client progress reports, developed by social workers, were used to document change on 10 dimensions: anxiety, avoidance, denial, in touch with feelings, anger, openness, self-initiative, setting boundaries, responsibility and peace/contentment. The findings of this research support the conclusion that there was more change in a positive direction for women receiving RK in private or group sessions. In terms of treatment, the cost factor can be reduced by initially using RK in groups (rather than individuals) as well as training present correctional staff such as social workers in the RK method. The application of RK at the Women's Correctional Institution in Goochland, Virginia, on women with a history of alcohol and drug addictions yielded more positive results in only five months more than traditional social work on variables of anxiety and peace/contentment, and avoidance and in touch with feelings. The women's improvement on these four dimensions was gained in spite of the ongoing depressive atmosphere of prison life. These findings should inspire action on the part of officials who have no wish to release dysfunctional women to repeat their mistakes, and harming themselves and others in the process. 18 Ref.
Copyright 1997 - The Haworth Press, Inc.

7. Empson, G. Inside track of working with women offenders in treatment. The Counselor, 15(6):12-14, 1997. (140292)

In a 1992 study it was found that almost one-third of all women in prison had a parent or guardian who had abused alcohol or other drugs, 44 percent of these women had been physically of sexually abused, and nearly two-thirds had grown up in a household with either a single or no parent. Statistics indicate that as many as 88 percent of the females arrested in some metropolitan areas test positive for illicit drugs. This article discusses treatment needs availability for substance abusing women offenders and delineates the factors specific to this population that should be addressed in treatment programs. Treatment services oriented to meet the needs of female offenders should address women's treatment needs, reduce barriers to recovery from substance abuse specific to women, be delivered in a context focusing on women's issues and social roles, and reduce the frequency of relapse to drug use and crime while improving social functioning. A diagram from Reed's Agency Eco-Map demonstrates the systemic approach to substance abuse treatment for women offenders. 12 Ref.

8. Taylor, S.D. Women offenders and reentry issues. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 28(1):85-93, 1996. (132810)

Women parallel men in their profile of physical disease, psychosocial configuration, addictive patterns, and criminal deviance. For women offenders in particular, the prison environment reinforces a victim role that originated in childhood and adolescence. In addition, such settings discourage both emotional expression (except for aggression) and responsibility, since basic needs such as food, lodging, and clothing are provided. Incarcerated women have significant treatment issues, including the lack of social and vocational role definition, psychological dependence and psychic craving, poorly developed social skills, and conflicts in social, family, and intimate relationships. This article describes the unique psychoeducational and skills training needs of women offenders as they adjust to community living and outlines specific treatment interventions that have proven to effect successful patient outcomes. Case studies are used to illustrate the reentry experiences of three women offenders with distinct backgrounds. One example illustrates how a woman who had been involved in the criminal justice system for 24 years overcame her addiction and self-confidence issues. A second case study profiles an offender with three children who had experienced sexual trauma during her childhood and adult years. A third case reports on an African-American woman whose cocaine addiction resulted in the birth of a drug-exposed son. The treatment model tested in all three cases emphasized the practical and often overlooked treatment issues of incarcerated women. 25 Ref.
Copyright 1996 - Journal of Psychoactive Drugs

9. Genteel, T.M. Treatment needs of women offenders with substance abuse histories: A Delphi study. Dissertation Abstracts International, 54(7):3852-B, 1994. (121779)

The purpose of this study was to determine the treatment needs of women offenders with drug and/or alcohol problems to improve treatment and hopefully reduce recidivism. A Delphi study was conducted, and a panel of 25 therapists who were identified as working primarily in the area of women, substance abuse and crime were administered two sets of questionnaires. The first questionnaire contained eight open-ended questions and five demographic questions. The second questionnaire was composed of statements selected from the responses to the open-ended questions. Results indicated that the most important primary treatment need of substance abusing women offenders was building self esteem/self worth. The most important critical treatment need to address initially in therapy depended on the client's circumstances. The most important immediate family relationship issue that needed to be addressed in treatment was recovery issues. That is, family members need to understand that the woman needs to put her recovery first and they need to feel a part of her recovery and work their own recovery programs, to include any adult children of alcoholics issues. The most important interpersonal issue that needed to be addressed in treatment was building self esteem/self worth. The most important family of origin issue that needed to be addressed in treatment was abuse issues (physical, emotional, sexual, rape or incest). Finally, the most important co-existing problem that needed to be addressed in treatment of this population was self-esteem.
Copyright 1994 - University Microfilms Inc. This abstract was published with the permission of University Microfilms International (UMI) and may not be reprinted without their consent. For permission, contact UMI, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Copies of this abstract are also available from the above address; refer to order number DA9333250.

10. Inciardi, J.A. (Ed.) Drug treatment and criminal justice: Sage Criminal Justice System Annuals No. 27. Newbury, CA: Sage, 1993. 271 p. (122618)

This book addresses drug treatment issues and presents innovative projects, programs, and advances available to drug offenders. It presents examples of programs designed for women offenders; discusses therapeutic communities in corrections; provides case management approaches; and addresses substance abuse and HIV among criminal justice populations. Also included is a section on the assessment and referral of criminal justice system clients.

11. MacMillan, J.; Baldwin, S. Pilot study of an alcohol education course for young women offenders: What's good for the goose? Alcohol and Alcoholism, 28(4):499-, 1993. (119859)

Although the provision of Alcohol Education Courses (AECs) for male offenders has increased steadily in the last 10 years, treatment interventions for women have continued to be neglected and under- researched. An Alcohol Education Course designed for women offenders was piloted in a prison. This report outlines the content of the course and the rationale for its development. Facilitatory and oppositional factors experienced in conducting work in this setting are discussed. Application of this work is limited to female offenders aged 17-24 with drink-related offending. This pilot study awaits replication in non- institutional settings. 15 Ref.
Copyright 1993 - Medical Council on Alcoholism

12. Wellisch, J.; Anglin, M.D.; Pendergast, M.L. Treatment strategies for drug-abusing women offenders. In: J.A. Inciardi, Ed., Drug Treatment and Criminal Justice: Sage Criminal Justice System Annuals No. 27, Newbury, CA: Sage, 1993. 271 p (pp 5-29) (122619)

This chapter addresses the issue of effective drug treatment strategies for adult women offenders in the criminal justice system (CJS). Current directions in CJS drug abuse treatment for women are discussed and brief descriptions of several programs that have been specifically designed for women offenders are provided. Findings on outcomes of several in- custody programs are summarized and attributes of successful programs are outlined. The chapter concludes with remarks on the future of drug abuse treatment for women offenders. 47 Ref.

13. PELKA-SLUGOCKI-M-D; SLUGOCKI-LESZEK. ALCOHOLISM AND FEMALE CRIME IN POLAND. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OFFENDER THERAPY AND COMPARATIVE CRIMINOLOGY, 21(2):174-183, 1977. (032232)

AN ATTEMPT IS MADE TO ASCERTAIN THE EXTENT OF ALCOHOLISM AMONG GROUPS OF WOMEN OFFENDERS IN POLAND. INFORMATION TAKEN FROM THE FILES OF SEVERAL HUNDRED LONG-TERM AND SHORT-TERM WOMEN CONVICTS SHOWED THAT THE MAJORITY (68 PERCENT) HAD BEEN CONFINED FOR COMMITTING OFFENSES AGAINST PUBLIC PROPERTY. NUMBERS OF ALCOHOLICS AND NONALCOHOLICS WERE RELATED TO CATEGORIES OF OFFENSES. IT WAS FOUND THAT THE INCIDENCE OF ALCOHOLISM AMONG THE OFFENDERS WAS GENERALLY NO LARGER THAN IT WAS FOR NONOFFENDING WOMEN OF THE SAME AGE. RESULTS SEEMED TO INDICATE AN APPARENT LINK BETWEEN ALCOHOLISM AND OFFENSES AGAINST PROPERTY, BOTH PUBLIC AND PRIVATE. NO GENERALIZATION COULD BE MADE CONCERNING ALCOHOLISM AS A CAUSATIVE AGENT IN THE COMMISSION OF CRIME. 22 REF.

14. MEDHUS-ASBJORN. CRIMINALITY AMONG FEMALE ALCOHOLICS. SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL MEDICINE, 3(2):45-49, 1975. (022126)

THE RESULTS OF A STUDY TO DEFINE THE DEVELOPMENTAL PATTERN OF RECORDED CRIMINAL OFFENSES WITHIN A GROUP OF 71 ALCOHOLIC FEMALES IN SWEDEN ARE REPORTED. THE SURVEYED GROUP CONSISTED OF WOMEN WHO FROM 1961 TO 1968 WERE SUBJECTED FOR THE 1ST TIME TO COMPULSORY ALCOHOLISM TREATMENT BY THE MALMO TEMPERANCE BOARD. DURING A PERIOD FROM 20 YEARS BEFORE, AND 9 YEARS AFTER COMPULSORY TREATMENT EXPOSURE, 85 CRIMINAL OFFENSES WERE COMMITTED BY THE SUBJECTS. IN COMPARISON, ACCORDING TO AN AGE AND CALENDAR SPECIFIC RISK TABLE FOR SWEDISH WOMEN DURING THIS SAME PERIOD, LESS THAN 1 SUCH OFFENSE IS EXPECTED. CRIMINAL OFFENSE INCIDENCE FOR ALCOHOLIC WOMEN WAS NOT HIGH FOR THE BEGINNING OF THE INVESTIGATED PERIOD. THE DISTRIBUTION AND TYPE OF CRIMES COMMITTED BY SUBJECTS AGREED ROUGHLY WITH THE PATTERN OF SWEDISH WOMEN OFFENDERS IN GENERAL. 13 REF.

15. SMITH-PHILIP-A. BRIEF ON THE WOMAN OFFENDER. CANADIAN CORRECTIONS ASSOCIATION, OTTAWA, 1968. 56 P., APP. (050552)

THIS BRIEF EXAMINES AND MAKES RECOMMENDATIONS CONCERNING THOSE TYPES OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR MOST COMMONLY ASSOCIATED WITH FEMALE OFFENDERS IN ORDER TO DETERMINE WHETHER THEY SHOULD STILL BE CONSIDERED CRIMINAL MATTERS OR WHETHER OTHER LEGISLATIVE PROVISIONS, SUCH AS HEALTH LEGISLATION, WOULD ADEQUATELY DESCRIBE THE BEHAVIOR, ESTABLISH STATUTORY CONTROLS, AND IMPROVE CHANCES OF REHABILITATION BY AVOIDING THE STIGMA OF A CRIMINAL RECORD. IN CANADA, THE RATIO OF MALE TO FEMALE OFFENDERS CONVICTED OF INDICTABLE OFFENCES WAS APPROXIMATELY 14 TO 1 FOR THE YEARS 1951 TO 1961 AND 7 TO 1 IN 1966. THIS INVOLVES OFFENCES UNDER THE CRIMINAL CODE OF CANADA SUCH AS VAGRANCY, ATTEMPTED SUICIDE, BREACH OF THE LIQUOR LAWS, AND DRUG ABUSE. ALSO EXAMINED ARE THE SPECIAL PROBLEMS THAT WOMEN OFFENDERS ENCOUNTER AT VARIOUS STAGES OF LAW ENFORCEMENT INCLUDING ARREST, SEARCH, INTERROGATION, TRANSPORTATION, BAIL, TRIAL, SENTENCING, PROBATION AND RESTITUTION, PRISON, PAROLE AND AFTER-CARE. FINALLY, A STUDY IS MADE OF CANADIAN DETENTION FACILITIES FOR WOMEN AND THE INMATE POPULATION OF THE FACILITIES WITH A VIEW TO MAKING NEEDED IMPROVEMENTS, AND ESTABLISHING THERAPEUTIC, CUSTODIAL, HOSPITAL AND PSYCHIATRIC CENTERS AS WELL AS COMMUNITY HOSTELS. (34 REFERENCES).

 

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