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NIDA Bibliography - The Economics of Drug Treatment June, 1999

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NIDA Bibliography - The Economics of Drug Treatment June, 1999

William S. Cartwright, Ph.D.
Health Economist
National Institute on Drug Abuse

Hyperlinks to sections within this text:

Financing of Drug Treatment Services
   Health Insurance
    Payment Mechanisms
Alternative Delivery Systems and Managed Care
Cost-Benefit, Cost-Effectiveness, and Cost-Utility Analysis
    Drug Treatment
    Alcohol Treatment
Cost of Drug Treatment
    Drug Treatment
   Alcohol Treatment
Methodological Research
Habit, Addiction, Consumption, and Demand for Illegal Drugs
Drug Policy

 

Economics of Drug Treatment Services

FINANCING OF DRUG TREATMENT SERVICES

Frank, R. G. (1992). Research on organization and financing of care for individuals with severe mental illness. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 19 (2).

Frank, R. G., & Goldman, H. H. (1989). Financing care of the severely mentally ill: Incentives, contracts and public responsibility. Journal of Drug Issues, 45 (3), 131-144.

Frank, R. G., & McGuire, T. G. (1998). Parity for mental health and substance abuse care under managed care. Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, 1 (4), 153-159.

Harwood, H. (1992, June). A review: Substance abuse policy, economics, and services provision. Current Opinion in Psychiatry.

Institute of Medicine. (1990). Treating drug problems (Vol. 2). Washington DC: National Academy Press.

Institute of Medicine. (1995). Federal regulation of methadone treatment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Jacobsen, K. & McGuire, T. G. (1996). Federal block grants and state spending: The Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Block Grant and state agency behavior. Journal of Health Politics, Policy, and Law. 21 (4), 753-770.

Lynch, F. L. (1997). The effects of state governmental transfers on local public mental health services. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 24 (4),279-299.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. (1992). Drug abuse services research series: Extent and adequacy of insurance coverage for substance abuse services. Rockville, MD: Author.
Also published by the Institute of Medicine under the title Treating Drug Problems, Vol. 1.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. (1994). Services research monograph: Financing drug treatment through state programs. Rockville, MD: Author.

Sturm, R., Goldman, W., & McCulloch, J. (1998). Mental health and substance abuse parity: A case study of Ohio’s state employee program. The Journal of Mental Health and Economics, 1, 129-134.

Sturm, R., Zhang, W., & Schoenbaum, M. (1999). How expensive are unlimited substance abuse benefits under managed care? Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research, 26 (2), 203-210.

Health Insurance

Arons, B. S., Frank, R. G., Goldman, H. H., McGuire, T. G., & Stephen, S. (1994). Mental health and substance abuse coverage under national health reform. Health Affairs, 13 (1), 192-205.

Burke, A. C., & Rafferty, J. A. (1994). Ownership differences in the provision of outpatient substance abuse services. Administration in Social Work, 18 (3), 59-91.

Callahan, J. J., Shepard, D. S., Beinecke, R. H., Larson, M. J., & Cavanaugh, D. (1995). Mental health/substance abuse treatment in managed care: The Massachusetts Medicaid experience. Health Affairs, 14 (3), 173-184.

Cartwright, W. S., & Woodward, A. M. (1991). Health insurance coverage questions, public health surveys, and drug abuse. In W. S. Cartwright & J. M. Kaple (Eds.), Economic costs, cost-effectiveness, financing and community-based drug treatment (NIDA Monograph 113, pp. 190-204). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Culhane, D. P., Hadley, T. R., & Lutterman, T. C. (1992). Who=s paying for public substance abuse programs? Trends and inter-state variability in the revenues of state drug and alcohol abuse agencies, from 1985 to 1989. Journal of Drug Issues, 22 (4), 939-947.

Duggar, B. C. (1991). Community-based drug treatment reimbursement: Progress and barriers. In W. S. Cartwright & J. M. Kaple (Eds.), Economic costs, cost-effectiveness, financing and community-based drug treatment (NIDA Monograph 113, pp. 148-164). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Foster-Higgins. (1993). Health benefits survey: Mental health and substance abuse benefits, 1990. Princeton, NJ: Author.

Foster-Higgins. (1996). National Survey of Employer Sponsored Health Plans: 1996. New York: Author.

Fox, H. B., Wicks, L. N., McManus, M. A., & Kelly, R. W. (1991). Medicaid financing for mental health and substance abuse services for children and adolescents. Rockville, MD: Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration.

Frank, R. G., & Dewa, C. (1992). Insurance, system structure and the use of mental health services by children and adolescents. Clinical Psychology Review, 12, 829-840.

Frank, R. G., & Gaynor, M. S. (1994). Organizational failure and government transfers: Evidence from an experiment in the financing of mental health care. Journal of Human Resources, 29 (1), 108-125.

Frank, R. G., Goldman, H. H., & McGuire, T. G. (1992). A model mental health benefit. Health Affairs, 11 (3), 98-117.

Frank, R. G., & Herring, J. (1983). Public provision of mental hospital services: Some economic issues. Administration in Mental Health, 10 (4), 288-305.

Frank, R. G., & Kessler, L. G. (1984). Economic grand rounds: State Medicaid limitations for mental health services. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 35 (3), 213-216.

Frank, R. G., & Lave, J. R. (1985). The impact of benefit design on length of stay and transfers to residential settings for Medicaid psychiatric patients. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 36 (7), 749-754.

Frank, R. G., & Lave, J. R. (1986). The effect of benefit design on the length of stay of Medicaid psychiatric patients. Journal of Human Resources, 23 (1), 16-22.

Frank, R. G., McGuire, T. G. (1986). Review of studies of the impact of insurance on demand and utilization of specialty mental health services. Health Services Research, 21, 241-265.

Frank, R. G., & McGuire, T. G. (1990). Compulsory employer-based health insurance and coverage for mental health services. Health Affairs, 9 (1), 31-42.

Frank, R. G., & McGuire, T. G. (1995). Estimating costs of mental health and substance abuse coverage. Health Affairs, 14 (3), 102-115.

Frank, R. G., McGuire, T. G., Bae, J. P., & Rupp, A. (1997). Solutions for adverse selection in behavioral health care. Health Care Financing Review, 18 (3), 109-122.

Frank, R. G., McGuire, T. G., & Newhouse, J. P. (1995). Risk contracts in managed mental health care. Health Affairs, 14 (3), 50-64.

Frank, R. G., McGuire, T. G., Regier, D. A., Manderscheid, R., & Woodward, A. (1994). Paying for mental health and substance abuse care. Health Affairs, 13 (1), 337-342.

Frank, R. G., McGuire, T. G., & Salkever, D. S. (1991). Benefit flexibility, cost shifting and mandated mental health coverage. Journal of Mental Health Administration, 18 (3), 264-271.

Frank, R. G., Salkever, D. S., & Sharfstein, S. S. (1991). A new look at rising mental health insurance costs. Health Affairs, 10 (2), 116-124.

French, M. T., & Fairbank, J. A. (1992). Patterns of drug use, criminal activity, and employment status among patients in federally-funded drug abuse treatment programs. Substance Abuse, 13 (1), 37-47.

Funding sources and expenditures for mental health and substance abuse prevention and treatment. (1995). In B. A. Rouse (Ed.), Substance abuse and mental health statistics sourcebook (pp. 107-126). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Gabel, J., Liston, D., Jensen, G., & Marsteller, J. (1994). The health insurance picture 1993: Some rare good news. Health Affairs, 13 (1), 327-336.

Gates, D. (1991). Medicaid and maternal addiction: Why it doesn=t work and how to fix it (8 p.). Hearing conducted by the National Health Law Program, Los Angeles.

Horgan, C., Larson, M. J., & Simon, L. (1994). Medicaid funding for drug abuse treatment: A national perspective. In G. Denmead & B. A. Rouse (Eds.), Financing drug treatment through state programs (Services Research Monograph No. 1, pp. 1-20). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Huber, J. H., Pope, G. C., & Dayhoff, D. A. (1994). National and state spending on specialty alcoholism treatment: 1979-1989. American Journal of Public Health, 84 (10), 1662-1666.

Jensen, G. A., & Morrisey, M. A. (1991). Employer-sponsored insurance coverage for alcohol and drug abuse treatment, 1988. Inquiry, 28, 393-402.

Kronson, M. E. (1991, April). Substance abuse coverage provided by employer medical plans. Monthly Labor Review, pp. 4-10.

Kunnes, R., Niven, R., Gustafson, T., Brooks, N., Levin, S. M., Edmunds, M., Trumble, J. G., & Coye, M. J. (1993). Financing and payment reform for primary health care and substance abuse treatment. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 12 (2), 23-42.

Larson, M. J., Bowden, M. L., & Horgan, C. (1991, January/February). Private insurance for substance abuse services: National overview. Addiction and Recovery, 11, 21-26.

Larson, M. J., & Horgan, C. M. (1994). Variations in state Medicaid program expenditures for substance abuse units and facilities. In G. Denmead & B. A. Rouse (Eds.), Financing drug treatment through state programs (Services Research Monograph No. 1, pp. 21-50). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Lo, A., & Woodward, A. (1993). An evaluation of freestanding alcoholism treatment for Medicare recipients. Addiction, 88 (1), 53-68.

Lynch, F. (1992). Financing family-centered services for adolescents. In W. Snyder & T. Ooms (Eds.), Empowering families, helping adolescents: Family-centered treatment of adolescents with alcohol, drug abuse, and mental health problems (Technical Assistance Publication Series No. 6, pp. 135-144). Rockville, MD: Office of Treatment Improvement.

McGuire, T. G. (1994). Predicting the cost of mental health benefits. Milbank Quarterly, 22 (1), 3-23.

McGuire, T. G., & Montgomery, J. T. (1982). Mandated mental health benefits in private insurance. Journal of Health Politics, Policy, and Law, 7, 380-406.

McGuire, T. G., & Shatkin, B. F. (1991). Forecasting the cost of drug abuse treatment coverage in private health insurance. In W. S. Cartwright & J. M. Kaple (Eds.), Economic costs, cost-effectiveness, financing and community-based drug treatment (NIDA Monograph 113, pp. 175-189). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Mintzes, B., Allo, C. D., & Brook, R. C. (1987-1988). Cost containment in the purchasing of substance abuse services. Drugs and Society, 2 (2), 109-123.

Morrisey, M. S., & Jensen, G. A. (1993). State mandates, self insurance, and employer demand for substance abuse and mental health insurance coverage. Advances in Health Economics and Health Services Research, 14, 209-224.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. (1992). Drug abuse services research series: Extent and adequacy of insurance coverage for substance abuse services. Rockville, MD: Author.
Also published by the Institute of Medicine under the title Treating Drug Problems, Vol. 1.

Pauly, M. V. (1991). Financing treatment for substance abuse. In W. S. Cartwright & J. M. Kaple (Eds.), Economic costs, cost-effectiveness, financing and community-based drug treatment (NIDA Monograph 113, pp. 165-174). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Price, K. F. (1989). Pricing Medicare's diagnosis-related groups: Charges versus estimated costs. Health Care Financing Review, 11 (1), 79-90.

Rogowski, J. A. (1992). Insurance coverage for drug abuse. Health Affairs, 11 (3), 137-148.

Rogowski, J. A. (1993). Private versus public sector insurance coverage for drug abuse [Report, program plan] (53 p.). Available from RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA.

Rosenheck, R., Gallup, P., & Frisman, L. K. (1993). Health care utilization and costs after entry into an outreach program for homeless mentally ill veterans. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 44 (12), 1166-1171.

Scott, J. E., Greenberg, D., & Pizarro, J. (1992). A survey of state insurance mandates covering alcohol and other drug treatment. Journal of Mental Health Administration, 19 (1), 96-118.

Silverman, C., Pemberton, C., & Homes, D. (1995). EBRI databook on employee benefits (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Employee Benefit Research Institute.

Social Security: Disability benefits for drug addicts and alcoholics are out of control. (1994, February). (8 p.) Washington, DC: General Accounting Office.

Stearns, S. C., & Slifkin, R. T. (1995). State risk pools and mental health care use. Health Affairs, 14 (3), 185-196.

Summers, L. H. (1989). Some simple economics of mandated benefits. American Economic Review, 79, 177-183.

Tommasini, N. R. (1994). Private insurance coverage for the treatment of mental illness versus general medical care: A policy of inequity. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 8 (1), 9-13.

Wright, G. E., & Buck, J. A. (1991). Medicaid support of alcohol, drug abuse, and mental health services. Health Care Financing Review, 13 (1), 117-128.

Young, N. K. (1996). Alcohol and other drug treatment: Policy choices in welfare reform. Washington, DC: National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors.

Payment Mechanisms

Arons, B. S., Frank, R. G., Goldman, H. H., McGuire, T. G., & Stephens, S. (1994). Mental health and substance abuse coverage under health reform. Health Affairs, 13 (1), 192-205.

Commons, M., Hodgkin, D., McGuire, T. G., & Riordan, M. H. (1994). Paying for public drug abuse services in the six New England states. In G. Denmead & B. Rouse (Eds.), Financing drug treatment through state programs (Services Research Monograph No. 1, pp. 95-142). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Commons, M., Hodgkin, D., McGuire, T. G., & Riordan, M. H. (1994). Summaries of state programs. In G. Denmead & B. Rouse (Eds.), Financing drug treatment through state programs (Services Research Monograph No. 1, pp. 143-192). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Commons, M., Hodgkin, D., McGuire, T. G., & Riordan, M. H. (forthcoming). Some economics of performance-based contracting for substance abuse services. Milbank Quarterly.

Daley, J., & Schwartz, M. (1994). Developing risk adjustment methods. In L. Iezzoni (Ed.), Risk adjustment for measuring health care outcomes. Ann Arbor, MI: Health Administration Press.

Denmead, G., & Rouse, B. A. (Eds.). (1994). Financing drug treatment through state programs (Services Research Monograph No. 1). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Edlund, M., Wheeler, J. R. C., & D=Aunno, T. A. (1992). Payment systems and payment incentives in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Public Budgeting and Financial Management, 4 (1), 107-123.

Financing of substance abuse treatment for children and adolescents. (1995). Pediatrics, 95 (2), 308-310.

Frank, R. G. (1985). A model of state expenditures on mental hospital services. Public Finance Quarterly, 13 (3), 319-338.

Frank, R. G. (1985). Pricing and location of physician services in mental health. Economic Inquiry, 23, 115-133.

Frank, R. G., Goldman, H. H., & McGuire, T. G. (1994). Distributional consequences of reform of mental health care financing. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 45 (9), 906-910.

Frank, R. G., & Lave, J. R. (1985). Prospective payment for inpatient psychiatric care: An alternative to the per case method. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 36 (7), 775-779.

Frank, R. G., & Lave, J. R. (1986). Per case prospective payment for psychiatric inpatients: An assessment and an alternative. Journal of Health Politics Policy and Law, 11 (1), 83-96.

Frank, R. G., & Lave, J. R. (1989). A comparison of hospital responses to reimbursement policies for Medicaid psychiatric patients. RAND Journal of Economics, 20 (4), 588-600.

Frank, R. G., & McGuire, T. G. (1995). Estimating costs of mental health and substance abuse coverage. Health Affairs, 14 (3), 102-115.

Frank, R. G., McGuire, T. G., & Newhouse, J. P. (1995). Risk contracts in managed mental health care. Health Affairs, 14 (3), 50-64.

Frank, R. G., McGuire, T. G., Regier, D. A., Manderscheid, R., & Woodward, A. (1994). Paying for mental health and substance abuse care. Health Affairs, 13 (1), 337-342.

Freeman, M. A., & Trabin, T. (1994). Managed behavioral healthcare: History, models, key issues, and future course. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Funding sources and expenditures for mental health and substance abuse prevention and treatment. (1995). In B. A. Rouse (Ed.), Substance abuse and mental health statistics sourcebook (pp. 107-126). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Group Health Association of America. (1994). HMO industry profile: 1994 edition. Washington, DC: Author.

Harwood, H. J., Thomson, M., & Nesmith, T. (1994). Healthcare reform and substance abuse treatment: Cost of financing under alternative approaches. Final report [Report, program plan] (38 p.). Fairfax, VA: Lewin-VHI, Inc.

Iezzoni, L. I. (Ed.). (1994). Risk adjustment for measuring health care outcomes. Ann Arbor, MI: Health Administration Press.

Kunnes, R., Niven, R., Gustafson, T., Brooks, N., Levin, S. M., Edmunds, M., Trumble, J. G., & Coye, M. J. (1993). Financing and payment reform for primary health care and substance abuse treatment. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 12 (2), 23-42.

Larson, M. J., & Horgan, C. M. (1994). Variations in state Medicaid program expenditures for substance abuse units and facilities. In G. Denmead & B. A. Rouse (Eds.), Financing drug treatment through state programs (Services Research Monograph No. 1, pp. 21-50). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Light, D. W. (1990). Comparative perspectives on the Dutch and American delivery systems. In J. J. Platt, C. D. Kaplan, & P. J. McKim (Eds.), The effectiveness of drug abuse treatment: Dutch and American perspectives (pp. 51-58). Malabar, FL: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company.

McCrady, B. S., & Langenbucher, J. W. (1996). Alcohol treatment and health care system reform. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53 (8), 737-746.

McFarland, B. H., Bigelow, D. A., Smith, J. C., Hornbrook, M. C., Mofidi, A., & Payton, P. (1995). A capitated payment system for involuntary mental health clients. Health Affairs, 14 (3), 220-231.

McGuire, T. G., Dickey, B., Shively, G. E., & Sturmwasser, I. (1987). Differences in resource use and cost among facilities treating alcohol, drug abuse, and mental disorders: Implications for design of a prospective payment system. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144 (5), 616-620.

Mechanic, D., & Aiken, L. H. (1989). Capitation in mental health: Potentials and cautions. New Directions in Mental Health, 43, 5-18.

Mezochow, J., Miller, S., Seixas, F., & Frances, R. J. (1987). The impact of cost containment on alcohol and drug treatment. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 38 (5), 506-510.

Mirin, S. M., & Sederer, L. I. (1994). Mental health care: Current realities, future directions. Psychiatric Quarterly, 65 (3), 161-175.

Newhouse, J. P. (1986). Rate adjusters for Medicare under capitation. Health Care Financing Review, 7 [Annual Supplement], 45-55.

Newhouse, J. P. (1994). Patients at risk: Health reform and risk adjustment. Health Affairs, 13 (1), 132-146.

Newhouse, J. P., Manning, W. G., Keeler, E. B., & Sloss, E. (1989). Adjusting capitation rates using objective health measures and prior utilization. Health Care Financing Review, 10 (3), 41-54.

Oss, M. (1994). Managed behavioral health market share in the United States, 1993: An Open Minds publication. Gettysburg, PA: Behavioral Health Industry News, Inc.

Public policy statement on addiction medicine and health insurance reform. (1993). Journal of Addictive Diseases, 12 (2), 161-163.

Samuels, D. Capitation-opportunities in healthcare delivery. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, Inc., 1996.

Shaffer, E. R., Cutler, A. J., & Wellstone, P. D. (1994). Coverage of mental health and substance abuse services under a single-payer health care system. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 45 (9), 916-919.

Shern, D. L., Donahue, S. A., Felton, C., Joseph, G. E., & Brier, N. (1995). Partial capital on versus fee-for-service in mental health care. Health Affairs, 14 (3), 208-219.

Smith, G. R., & Burns, B. J. (1993). Recommendations of the Little Rock working group on mental and substance abuse disorders in health-care reform. Journal of Mental Health Administration, 20 (3), 247-253.

Soman, L. A., Brindis, C., & Dunn-Malhotra, E. (1996). Interplay of national, state, and local policy in financing care for drug-affected women and children in California. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 28 (1), 3-15.

Stearns, S. C., & Slifkin, R. T. (1995). State risk pools and mental health care use. Health Affairs, 14 (3), 185-196.

Strosahl, K., & Quirk, M. (1994, July). The trouble with carve outs: Separate behavioral health plans drive up costs because most patients seek mental health care from primary doctors. Business and Health.

Taube, C. A., Lee, E. S., & Forthofer, R. N. (1984). Diagnosis-related groups for mental disorders, alcoholism, and drug abuse: Evaluation and alternatives. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 35 (5), 452-455.

U. S. General Accounting Office. (1994). Social Security: Major changes needed for disability benefits for addicts. Gaithersburg, MD: U.S. General Accounting Office.

Wells, E. A., Fleming, C., Calsyn, D. A., Jackson, T. R., & Saxon, A. J. (1995). Users of free treatment slots at a community-based methadone maintenance clinic. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 12 (1), 13-18.

Young, N. K. (1996). Alcohol and other drug treatment: Policy choices in welfare reform. Washington, DC: National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors.

Zarkin, G. A., Galinis, D. N., French, M. T., Fountain, D. L., Ingram, P. W., & Guyett, J. A. (1995). Financing strategies for drug abuse treatment programs. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 12 (6), 385-399.
NIDA-sponsored research.

ALTERNATIVE DELIVERY SYSTEMS AND MANAGED CARE

Alexander, J. A., & Lemak, C. H. (1997). Managed care penetration in outpatient substance abuse treatment units. Medical Care Research and Review, 54 (4), 490-507.

Alexander, J. A., & Lemak, C. H. (1998). Director’s perception of the effects of managed care in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse, 9, 1-14.

Anderson, D. F. (1989). How effective is managed mental health care? Business & Health, 7 (9), 34-50.

Austin, N. (1993). Pacific Bell’s evolution to managed care. Managed Care Quarterly, 1, 12- 19.

Baker, F., & Vischi, T. (1989). Continuity of care and the control of costs: Can case management assure both? Journal of Public Health Policy, 10 (2), 204-213.

Berlant, J., Trabin, T., & Anderson, D. (1994). The value of mental health and chemical dependency benefits: More than meets the eye. In E. Sullivan (Ed.), Driving down health care costs: Strategies and solutions. Frederick, MD: Panel Publishers.

Bevilacqua, J. J., Elias, E., & Navon, M. (1995). Perspectives. Health Affairs, 14 (3), 45-49.
The above entry refers to AStates= embrace of managed mental health care@ by Essock and Goldman, which appears in the same issue of Health Affairs.

Bond, G. R., Miller, L. D., Krumwied, R. D., & Ward, R. S. (1988). Assertive case management in three CMHCs: A controlled study. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 39 (4), 411-418.

Boyle, P. J., & Callahan, D. (1995). Managed care in mental health: The ethical issues. Health Affairs, 14 (3), 7-22.

Burke, W. M. (1984). Substance abuse treatment in an era of cost containment. Family and Community Health, 7 (2), 74-87.

Burton, W. N., Hoy, D. A., Bonin, R. L., & Gladstone, L. (1989). Quality and cost-effective management of mental health care. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 31 (4), 363-367.

Callahan, J. J., Shepard, D. S., Beinecke, R. H., Larson, M. J., & Cavanaugh, D. (1994, January 24). Evaluation of the Massachusetts Medicaid Mental Health/Substance Abuse Program. Report submitted by the Heller School for Advanced Studies in Social Welfare, Brandeis University.

Callahan, J. J., Shepard, D. S., Beinecke, R. H., Larson, M. J., & Cavanaugh, D. (1995). Mental health/substance abuse treatment in managed care: The Massachusetts Medicaid experience. Health Affairs, 14 (3), 173-184.

Caulkins, J. P. (1997). Is crack cheaper than (powder) cocaine? Addiction. 2 (11),1437-1443.

Caulkins, J. P. (1997). Modeling the domestic distribution network for illicit drugs. Managment Science, 43 (10), 1364-1371.

Caulkins, J. P. & Reuter, P. (1997). Setting goals for drug policy: Harm reduction or use reduction? Addiction, 92 (9), 1143-1150.

Chang, C. F., et al. (1998). Tennessee=s failed managed care program for mental health and substance abuse services. JAMA, 279 (11),864-869.

Commons, M. & McGuire, (1997). Some economics of performance-based contracting for substance abuse services. In J.A. Egertson, D.M. Fox, & A.I. Leshner (Eds.), Treating Drug Abusers Effectively (pp. 225-249). Oxford: Blackwell Publshers, Ltd.

D’Aunno, T., & Price, R. H. (1985). Organizational adaptation to changing environments: Community mental health and drug abuse services. American Behavioral Scientist, 28 (5), 669-683.

D’Aunno, T., & Sutton, R. I. (1992). The responses of drug abuse treatment organizations to financial adversity: A partial test of the threat-rigidity thesis. Journal of Management, 18 (1), 117-131.

D’Aunno, T., Sutton, R. I., & Price, R. H. (1991). Isomorphism and external support in conflicting institutional environments: A study of drug abuse treatment units. Academy of Management Journal, 34 (3), 636-661.

D’Aunno, T., & Vaughn, T. E. (1995). An organizational analysis of service patterns in outpatient drug abuse treatment units. Journal of Substance Abuse, 7, 27-42.

DiMonaco, J. S., & DiMonaco, D. (1989). The systems approach to managing mental health and chemical dependency treatmentCsynergism at work. Employee Benefits Journal, 14 (1), 12-16.

Docherty, J. P. (1990). Myths and mystifications of managed care. Journal of Mental Health Administration, 17 (2), 138-143.

Dunlap, L. J., & French, M. T. (1998). A comparison of two methods for estimating the costs of drug abuse treatment. Journal of Maintenance of the Addictions, 1 (3), 29-44.

Edelman, B., & Phelan, A. (1992). Health maintenance organizations and the treatment of substance abuse. Journal of Ambulatory Care Management, 15 (1), 56-67.

England, M. J., & Vaccaro, V. A. (1991). New systems to managed mental health care. Health Affairs, 10 (4), 129-137.

Essock, S. M., & Goldman, H. H. (1995). States= embrace of managed mental health care. Health Affairs, 14 (3), 34-44.

Feldstein, P., Wickizer, T. M., & Wheeler, J. R. C. (1988). Private cost containment: The effects of utilization review programs on health care use and expenditures. New England Journal of Medicine, 318 (20).

Field, M. J., & Gray, B. H. (1989). Should we regulate Autilization management@? Health Affairs, 8 (4), 103-112.

Fisher, D. G., & Anglin, M. D. (1987). Survival analysis in drug program evaluation. Part I: Overall program effectiveness. International Journal of the Addictions, 22 (4), 115-133.

Fisher, D. G., & Anglin, M. D. (1987). Survival analysis in drug program evaluation. Part II: Partitioning treatment effects. International Journal of the Addictions, 22 (4), 377-387.

Frabotta, J. (1989). How to weigh drug treatment options. Business & Health, 7 (2), 37-38.

Frank, R. G. (1985). Rationing of mental health services: Simple observations on the current approach and future prospects. Administration in Mental Health, 13 (1), 22-29.

Frank, R. G., Huskamp, H. A., McGuire, T. G., & Newhouse, J. P. (1996). Some economics of the mental health carve-outs. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 933-937.

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COST-BENEFIT, COST-EFFECTIVENESS, AND COST-UTILITY ANALYSIS

Drug Treatment

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Alcohol Treatment

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Swint, J. M., & Nelson, W. B. (1977). Prospective evaluation of alcoholism rehabilitation efforts. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 38, 1386-1404.

 

COST OF DRUG TREATMENT

Drug Treatment

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Hellinger, F. (1990). Updated forecasts of the costs of medical care for persons with AIDS, 1989 - 1993. Public Health Reports, 105 (1), 1.

Hellinger, F. (1991). Forecasting the medical care costs of the HIV epidemic: 1991 - 1994. Inquiry, 28, 213.

Hellinger, F. (1992). Forecasts of the costs of medical care for persons with HIV: 1992 - 1995. Inquiry, 29, 356.

Hellinger, F. (1993). The lifetime costs of treating a person with HIV. Journal of the American Medical Association, 20 (4), 474-478. Hoffman, N. G., DeHart, S. S., & Fulkerson, J. A. (1993). Medical care utilization as a function of recovery status following chemical addictions treatment. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 12 (1), 97-108.

Hoffman, N. G., Harrison, P. A., & Belille, C. A. (1984). Multidimensional impact of treatment for substance abuse. Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse, 3 (3), 83-94.

Holder, H. D. (1994). The importance of cost in assessing the treatment and prevention of substance abuse problems. Addiction, 89 (8), 919-920.

Holder, H. D., & Blose, J. O. (1987). Mental health treatment and the reduction of health care costs: A four-year study of U.S. federal employees= enrollment with the Aetna Life Insurance company. Advances in Health Economics and Health Services Research, 8, 157-174.

Holder, H. R., & Blose, J. O. (1992). The reduction of health care costs associated with alcoholism treatment: A 14-year-old longitudinal study. Journal of Studies Alcohol, 256, 293-302.

Hyde, A., & Vollmerhausen. (1998). Accountability in public short-term adult aod residential treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 15 (4), 367-375.

Jerrell, J. M., & Ridgely, M. S. (1995). Comparative effectiveness of three approaches to serving people with severe mental illness and substance abuse disorders. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 183 (9), 566-576.

Johnson, B. D., Goldstein, P. J., Preble, E., Schmeidler, J., Lipton, D. S., Spunt, B., & Miller, T. (1985). Taking care of business: The economics of crime by heroin abusers. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Jones, K. B., & Vischi, T. R. (1979). Impact of alcohol, drug abuse, and mental health treatment on medical care utilization: A review of the research literature. Medical Care, 17 (Suppl. 1), 3-14.

Kessler, R. C., McGonagle, K. A., Zhao, S., Nelson, C. B., Hughes, M., Eshleman, S., Wittchen, H., & Kendler, K. S. (1994). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 8-19.

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Koch, J. V., & Grupp, S. E. (1973). Police and illicit drug markets: Some economic considerations. British Journal of Addictions, 68, 351-362.

Langenbucher, J. (1994). Offsets are not add-ons: The place of addictions treatment in American health care reform. Journal of Substance Abuse, 6 (1), 117-122.

Lemkau, P. V., Amsel, Z., Sanders, B., Amsel, J., & Seif, T. F. (1975). Social and economic costs of drug abuse. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University.

Lennox, R. D., Lennox, J. A., & Holder, H. D. (1992). Substance abuse and family illness: Evidence from health care utilization and cost-offset research [Special Issue: Substance Abuse Services]. Journal of Mental Health Administration, 19, 83-95.

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Merrill, J., & Fox, K. (1998). The impact of substance abuse on federal spending. In W. J. Bukoski & R. I. Evans (Eds.), Cost-benefit/cost effectiveness research of drug abuse prevention: Implications for programming and policy (NIDA Monograph 176, pp. 5-36.) Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

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Mumford, E., Schlesinger, H. J., Glass, G. V., Patrick, C., & Cuerdon, T. (1984). A new look at evidence about reduced cost of medical utilization following mental health treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141 (10), 1145-1158.

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Rice, D. P., Kelman, S., & Miller, L. S. (1991). Estimates of economic costs of alcohol and drug abuse and mental illness, 1985-1988. Public Health Reports, 106 (3), 280-292.

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Alcohol Treatment

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Holder, H. D., & Blose, J. O. (1992). The reduction of health care costs associated with alcoholism treatment: A 14-year longitudinal study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 53 (4), 293-302.

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Rice, D. P., Kelman, S., & Miller, L. S. (1991). The economic cost of alcohol abuse. Alcohol Health and Research World, 15, 307-316.

 

Methodological Research

Adams, S. (1976). Cost analysis and cost-benefit analysis. In P. G. Boesen & S. E. Grupp (Eds.), Community-based corrections: Theory, practice, and research (pp. 377-397). Santa Cruz, CA: Davis Publishing Company.

Background papers on drug abuse financing and services research. (1991). Drug abuse services research series No. 1. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Becker, G. S. (1968). Crime and punishment: An economic approach. Journal of Political Economy, 6 (2), 169-217.

Becker, G., & Murphy, K. (1988). A theory of rational addiction. Journal of Political Economy, 96, 675-700.

Bloom, B., et al. (1993). A reappraisal of hepatitis B virus vaccination strategies using cost-effectiveness analysis. Annals of Internal Medicine, 118 (4), 298.

Bradley, C. J., French, M. T., & Rachal, J. V. (1994). Financing and cost of standard and enhanced methadone treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 11 (5), 433-442.
NIDA-supported research (grant).

Cartwright, W. S., & Kaple, J. M. (Eds.). (1991). Economic costs, cost-effectiveness, financing, and community-based drug treatment (NIDA Monograph 113). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Cohodes, D. R. (1982). Problems in measuring the cost of illness. Evaluation and the Health Professions, 5, 381-392.

Everingham, S. S., & Rydell, C. P. (1994). Modeling the demand for cocaine [MR-332-ONDCP/A/DPRC]. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.

Frank, R. G. (1981). Cost benefit analysis in mental health: A review of the literature. Administration in Mental Health, 8 (3), 161-176.

French, M. T. (1995). Economic evaluation of drug abuse treatment programs: Methodology and findings. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 21 (1), 111-135.

French, M. T., & Mauskopf, J. A. (1992). A quality-of-life method for estimating the value of avoided morbidity. American Journal of Public Health, 82 (11), 1553-1555.

French, M. T., Mauskopf, J. A., Teague, J. L., & Roland, J. (1996). Estimating the dollar value of health outcomes from drug abuse interventions. Medical Care, 34 (9), 890-910.

French, M. T., Rachal, J. V., & Hubbard, R. L. (1991). Conceptual framework for estimating the social cost of drug abuse. Journal of Health and Social Policy, 2 (3), 1-22.

Garnick, D. W., Hendricks, A. M., Dulski, J. D., Thorpe, K. E., & Horgan, C. (1994). Characteristics of private-sector managed care for mental health and substance abuse treatment. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 45 (12), 1201-1205.

Godfrey, C. (1994). Intelligent engagement between economists and addiction specialists: A way forward? Addiction, 89 (8), 923.

Gold, M. R., Siegel, J. E., Russell, L. B., & Weinstein, M. C. (Eds.). (1996). Cost-effectiveness in health and medicine. New York: Oxford University Press.

Goodman, A. C., Holder, H. D., & Nishiura, E. (1991). Alcoholism treatment offset effects: A cost model. Inquiry, 28, 168-178.

Goodman, A. C., Nishiura, E. & Hankin, J. R. (1998). A Discrete Choice Model of Drug Abuse Treatment Location. Health Services Research, 33 (1), 125-145.

Grossman, M., & Chaloupka, F. J. (1998). The demand for cocaine by young adults: A rational addiction approach. Journal of Health Economics, 17, 427-474.

Hodgson, T. A., & Meiners, M. R. (1982). Cost-of-illness methodology: A guide to current practices and procedures. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, 60 (3), 429-462.

Hser, Y.-I., & Anglin, D. (1991). Cost-effectiveness of drug abuse treatment: Relevant issues and alternative longitudinal modeling approaches. In W. S. Cartwright & J. M. Kaple (Eds.), Economic costs, cost-effectiveness, financing and community-based drug treatment (NIDA Monograph 113, pp. 67-93). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Johansson, P.-O. (1995). Evaluating health risks. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Kim, S., Coletti, S. D., Crutchfield, C. C., Williams, C., & Hepler, N. (1995). Benefit-cost analysis of drug abuse prevention programs: A macroscopic approach. Journal of Drug Education, 25 (2), 111-127.

Leveson, I. (1977). Cost-benefit analysis and program target populations: The narcotics addiction treatment case. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 32 (2), 127-142.

Moore, M. H. (1977). Buy and bust. Massachusetts: Lexington Books.

Mullahy, J., & Sindelar, J. L. (1997). Women and work: Tipplers and teetotalors. Health Economics, 6, 533-537.

Office of Science and Data Development, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. (1991, April). The feasibility of linking research related data bases to federal and non-federal medical administrative data bases: Report to Congress (AHCPR Pub. No. 91-0003). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Orphanides, A., & Zervos, D. (1995). Rational addiction with learning and regret. Journal of Political Economy, 103 (4), 739-758.

Pacula, R. L. (1997). Economic modeling of the gateway effect. Health Economics, 6, 521-524.

Pacula, R. L. (1997). Women and substance abuse use: Are women more susceptible to addiction? American Economic Review, 87 (2), 454-459.

Plotnick, R. D. (1994). Applying benefit-cost analysis to substance use prevention programs. International Journal of the Addictions, 29 (3), 339-359.

Rice, D. P. (1966). Estimating the cost of illness. Health economics series No. 6. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare.

Rice, D. P., Hodgson, T. A., & Kopstein, A. N. (1985). The economic costs of illness: A replication and update. Health Care Financing Review, 7 (1), 61-80.

Schimmel, V. E., Alley, C., & Mullaney, A. (1987). Measuring costs: Product line accounting versus ratio of cost to charges. Topics in Health Care Financing, 13 (4), 76-86.

Scitovsky, A. A. (1982). Estimating the direct cost of illness. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, 60, 463-491.

Sechrest, L., Perrin, E., & Bunker, J. (1990, May). Research methodology: Strengthening causal interpretations of nonexperimental data (Conference Proceedings). Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, U. S. Public Health Service, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research.

Shepard, D. S., & Thompson, M. S. (1979, November/December). First principles of cost-effectiveness analysis in health. Public Health Reports, 94, 535-543.

Sturm, R. (1998). Instrumental variable methods for effectiveness research. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 7 (1), 68-77, 1998.

Toplin, H. G., & Bentkover, J. D. (1983). Economic cost of illness: Decision-making applications and practical considerations. In R. M. Scheffler & L. F. Rossiter (Eds.), Advances in health economics and health services research: A research annual (Vol. 4, pp. 165-198). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Tullock, G. (1967). The welfare costs of tariffs, monopolies, and theft. Western Economic Journal, 5, 224-233.

Yamada, T., & Kendix, M. (1996). The impact of alcohol consumption and marijuana use on high school graduation. Health Economics, 5, 77-92.

Zarkin, G. A., French, M. T., Anderson, D. W., & Bradley, C. J. (1994). A conceptual framework for the economic evaluation of substance abuse interventions. Evaluation and Program Planning, 17 (4), 409-418.

 

Habit, Addiction, Consumption, and Demand for Illegal Drugs

Ault, R., & Ekelund, R. B. (1988, Fall). Habits in economic analysis: Veblen and the neoclassicals. History of Political Economy, 20, 431-445.

Barthold, T. A., & Hochman, H. M. (1988). Addiction as extreme seeking. Economic Inquiry, 26, 89-106.

Becker, G. S. (1962). Irrational behavior and economic theory. Journal of Political Economy, 2, 1-13.

Becker, G. S., Grossman, M., & Murphy, K. (1991). Rational addiction and the effect of price on consumption. American Economic Review, 81 (2), 237-241.

Becker, G. S., Grossman, M., & Murphy, K. (1994). An empirical analysis of cigarette addiction. American Economic Review, 84 (3), 396-418.

Boyer, M. (1983). Rational demand and expenditures patterns under habit formation. Journal of Economic Theory, 31 (1), 27-53.

Brown, G. A., & Silverman, L. P. (1974). The retail price of heroin: Estimation and applications. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 69, 595-606.

Buck D., Godfrey, C., & Sutlon, M. (1996). Economic and other issues of addiction: Implications for the choice of alcohol, tobacco, and drug policies. Drug and Alcohol Review, 15, 357-368.

Caulkins, J. P., & Padman, R. (1993) Quantity discounts and quality premia for illicit drugs. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 88 (423), 748-757.

Chaloupku, F. J. (1991). Rational addictive behavior and cigarette smoking. Journal of Political Economy, 91 (4), 722-742.

Iannacone, L. (1986). Addiction and satiation. Economic Letters, 21 (11), 95-99.

Kenkel, D. S., & Reber, D. C. (1994). Alcohol consumption and young adults, socioeconomic status. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, pp. 119-161.

Michaels, R. J. (1988). Addiction, compulsion, and the technology of consumption. Economic Enquiry, 26, 75-88.

Orphanides, A., & Zervos, D. (1994). Optimal consumption dynamics with non-concave habit forming utility. Economic Letters, 44 (1-2), 67-72.

Orphanides, A., & Zervos, D. (1995). Rational addiction with learning and regret. Journal of Political Economy, 103 (4), 739-758.

Orphanides, A., & Zervos, D. (1998). Myopia and addictive behavior. Economic Journal, 108, 75-91.

Rhodes, W., Hyatt, R., & Scheiman, P. (1994). The price of cocaine, heroin, and marijuana, 1981-1993. Journal of Drug Abuse, 24 (3), 383-402.

Pacula, R. L. (1995). The development of demand for intoxicating substances. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Duke University, North Carolina.

Schelling, T. C. (1984). Self-command in practice, in policy, and in a theory of rational choice. American Economic Review, 74 (2), 1-11.

Sickles, R., & Taubman, P. (1991). Who uses illegal drugs? American Economic Review, 81 (2), 248-251.

Spinnewyn, F. (1981). Rational habit formation. European Economic Review, 15 (1), 91-109.

Stigler, G. J., & Becker, G. S. (1977). De gustibus non est disputandum. American Economic Review, 67, 76-90.

Thaler R., & Shefrin, H. M. (1981, April). An economic theory of self-control. Journal of Political Economy, pp. 392-406.

Winston, G. C. (1980). Addiction and backsliding, a theory of compulsive consumption. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 1 (4), 295-324.

 

Drug Policy

 

Becker, G. S. (1968). Crime and punishment: An economic approach. Journal of Political Economy, 76 (2), 169-217.

Chaloupka, F. J., Saffer, H., & Grossman, M. (1993). Alcohol-control policies and motor- vehicle fatalities. Journal of Legal Studies, 22 (1), 161-186.

Clague, C. (1973). Legal strategies for dealing with heroin addiction. American Economic Review, 63, 263-269.

Coate, D., & Grossman, M. (1988). Effects of alcoholic beverage prices and legal drinking ages on youth alcohol use. Journal of Law and Economics, 31 (1), 145-171.

DiNardo, J. (1993). Law enforcement, the price of cocaine, and cocaine use. Mathematical and Computer Modeling, 17 (2), 53-64.

Domby-Moore, B., & Resetar, S. (1994). A system description of the cocaine trade [MR-236-A/AF/DPRC]. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.

Duan, N., Manning, W. G., Morris, C. N., & Newhouse, J. P. (1983). A comparison of alternative models for the demand for medical care. Journal of Business and Economic Studies, 1 (2), 115-126.

Eatherly, B. J. (1974). Drug-law enforcement: Should we arrest pushers or users? Journal of Political Economy, 82, 210.

Erickson, E. (1969). The social costs of the discovery and suppression of the clandestine distribution of heroin. Journal of Political Economy, 77, 484-486.

Fernandez, R. A. (1973). The problem of heroin addiction and radical political economy. American Economics Association, 63 (2), 257-262.

Friedman, M. (1972). Prohibition and drugs. Newsweek, 5, 104.

Gadrey, C. (1997). The impact of law-enforcement activity on a heroin market: Comment on Weatherburn & Lind. Addiction, 92 (5), 612-613.

Hannan, T. H. (1981). On the optimality of legalizing heroin sales. In J. V. Henderson (Ed.), Research in urban economics: Vol I. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Keeler, T. E., Hu, T. W., Barnett, P. G., & Manning, W. G. (1993). Taxation, regulation, and addiction: A demand function for cigarettes based on time-series evidence. Journal of Health Economics, 12, 1-18.

Kennedy, M., Reuter, P., & Riley, K. J. (1994). A simple economic model of cocaine production [MR-201-USDP]. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.

Kirzner, I. M. (1962). Rational action and economic theory. Journal of Political Economy, 71, 380-385.

Koch, J. V., & Grupp, S. E. (1971, December). The economics of drug control policies. International Journal of the Addictions, pp. 571-584.

Lee, L. W. (1993). Would harassing drug users work? Journal of Political Economy, 101 (5), 939-959.

Levine, D., Stoloff, P., & Spuil, N. (1976). Public drug treatment and addict crime. Journal of Legal Studies, 5 (2), 435-462.

Little, A. D. (1967). Drug abuse and law enforcement. Washington DC: The White House.

McGuire, T. G., & Ruhm, C. (1993). Workplace drug abuse policy. Journal of Health Economics, 12, 19-38.

Miron, J. A., & Zwiebel, J. (1991). Alcohol consumption during prohibition. AER Papers and Proceedings, 81, 242-247.

Model, K. E. (1993). The effect of marijuana decriminalization on hospital emergency room drug episodes. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 88 (423), 737-747.

Moore, M. H. (1973). Policies to achieve decriminalization on the effective price of heroin. American Economic Review, 63, 270-277.

Moore, M. H. (1976). Anatomy of the heroin problem: An exercise in problem definition. Policy Analysis, 2 (4), 639-662.

Moore, M. H. (1977). Buy and bust: The effective regulation of an illicit market in heroin. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Reuter, P. (1984). The (continued) vitality of mythical numbers. The Public Interest, 75, 135- 147.

Reuter, P. (1997). The impact of law enforcement activity on a heroin market: Comment on Weatherbaum & Lind. Addiction, 92 (5), 611-612.

Reuter, P., & Kleiman, M. (1986). Risks and prices: An economic analysis of drug enforcement.

In N. Morris & M. Tonry (Eds.), Crime and justice: A review of research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Reuter, P., MacCoun, R., & Murphy, P. (1990). Money from crime: A study of the economics of drug dealing in Washington D.C. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.

Rottenberg, S. (1968). The clandestine distribution of heroin, discovery and suppression. Journal of Political Economy, 76, 78-90.

Roumasset, J., & Hadreas, J. (1977). Addicts, fences, and the market for stolen goods. Public Finance Quarterly, 5 (2), 247-272.

Rydell, C. P., & Everingham, S. S. (1994). Controlling cocaine: Supply versus demand programs. Prepared for the Office of National Drug Control Policy, United States Army. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.

Silverman, L. P., & Spruill, N. (1977, January). Urban crime and the price of heroin. Journal of Urban Economics, pp. 80-103.

Singer, M. (1971). The vitality of mythical numbers. The Public Interest, 23, 3-9.

Van Ours, J. C. (1995). The price elasticity of hard drugs: The case of opium in the Dutch East Indies, 1923-1938. Journal of Political Economy, 103 (2), 261-279.

White, M., & Luksetich W. A. (1983). Heroin: Price elasticity and enforcement strategies. Economic Inquiry, 21, 557-564.

Wilson, J. Q., Moore, M. H., Wheat, D. I., & David, I. (1972). The problem of heroin. The Public Interest, 29, 3-38.

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