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Special Focus:  Mental Health, Substance Abuse, & Terrorism

Some Commonly Prescribed Medications: 
Use and Consequences

Opioids

bulletOxycodone (OxyContin)
bulletPropoxyphene (Darvon)
bulletHydrocodone (Vicodin)
bulletHydromorphone (Dilaudid)
bulletMeperidine (Demerol)
bulletDiphenoxylate (Lomotil)

CNS Depressants

Barbiturates
bulletMephobarbital (Mebaral)
bulletPentobarbital sodium (Nembutal)
Benzodiazepines
bulletDiazepam (Valium)
bulletChlordiazepoxide hydrochloride (Librium)
bulletAlprazolam (Xanax)
bulletTriazolam (Halcion)
bulletEstazolam (ProSom)

Stimulants

bulletDextroamphetamine (Dexedrine)
bulletMethylphenidate (Ritalin)
bulletSibutramine hydrochloride monohydrate (Meridia)

Generally prescribed for

bulletostsurgical pain relief
bulletManagement of acute or chronic pain
bulletRelief of coughs and diarrhea

Generally prescribed for

bulletAnxiety
bulletTension
bulletPanic attacks
bulletAcute stress reactions
bulletSleep disorders
bulletAnesthesia (at high doses)

Generally prescribed for

bulletNarcolepsy
bulletAttention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
bulletDepression that does not respond to other treatment
bulletShort-term treatment of obesity
bulletAsthma

In the body

Opioids attach to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain messages to the brain.

In the body

CNS depressants slow brain activity through actions on the GABA system and, therefore, produce a calming effect.

In the body

Stimulants enhance brain activity, causing an increase in alertness, attention, and energy.

Effects of short-term use

bulletBlocked pain messages
bulletDrowsiness
bulletConstipation
bulletDepressed respiration
(depending on dose)

Effects of short-term use

bulletA "sleepy" and uncoordinated feeling during the first few days, as the body becomes accustomed - tolerant - to the effects, these feelings diminish.

Effects of short-term use

bulletElevated blood pressure
bulletIncreased heart rate
bulletIncreased respiration
bulletSuppressed appetite
bulletSleep deprivation

Effects of long-term use

bulletPotential for tolerance, physical dependence, withdrawal, and/or addiction

Effects of long-term use

bulletPotential for tolerance, physical dependence, withdrawal, and/or addiction

Effects of long-term use

bulletPotential for addiction

Possible negative effects

bulletSevere respiratory depression or death following a large single dose

Possible negative effects

bulletSeizures following a rebound in brain activity after reducing or discontinuing use

Possible negative effects

bulletDangerously high body temperatures or an irregular heartbeat after taking high doses
bulletCardiovascular failure or lethal seizures
bulletFor some stimulants, hostility or feelings of paranoia after taking high doses repeatedly over a short period of time

Should not be used with

Other substances that cause CNS depression, including
bulletAlcohol
bulletAntihistamines
bulletBarbiturates
bulletBenzodiazepines
bulletGeneral anesthetics

Should not be used with

Other substances that cause CNS depression, including
bulletAlcohol
bulletPrescription opioid pain medicines
bulletSome over-the-counter cold and allergy medications

Should not be used with

bulletOver-the-counter cold medicines containing decongestants
bulletAntidepressants, unless supervised by a physician
bulletSome asthma medications
 

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GORSKI-CENAPS Clinical Model --- Research-Based Best Practice Principles

Special Focus:  Mental Health, Substance Abuse, & Terrorism

Terry Gorski and Other Members of the GORSKI-CENAPS Team are Available To Train & Consult On Areas Related To Recovery, Relapse Prevention, & Relapse Early Intervention

Address: 6147 Deltona Blvd, Spring Hill, FL  34606
info@enaps.com; www.tgorski.com, www.cenaps.com, www.relapse.org